Curriculum development Code No 8603 B.ed 1.5 Years Spring, 2017. You will find updated assignments of Allama Iqbal University. AIOU Latest assignments 2019. B.ed Assignments 2019. AIOU spring assignments 2019. AIOU autumn assignments 2019. 8603 complete B.ed Assignment No#1.
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Q No:1 WHAT IS CURRICULUM CONTENT? HIGHLIGHT THE PRINCIPLES AND CRITERIA FOR SELECTING THE CURRICULUM CONTENT.
Curriculum Content Curriculum development is both a political and technical process. Given the importance of curriculum for society ( from the point of view of its identity, development prospects, etc.), curriculum is a matter of public interest. Curriculum entails nevertheless technical aspects that are the responsibility of curriculum specialists (technicians). Curriculum specialists and specialized committees ought to work in synergy with the support of curriculum-specialized institutions.
Curriculum processes should benefit from extensive capacity development and sharing, as well as from the participation of relevant education agents and stakeholders. Currently, all jurisdictions have written curricula that are laid down in different curriculum documents. The clearest and most successful curricula are described in curriculum frameworks which set subject curricula/ syllabuses in a wider structure. However, some jurisdictions described their curricula mainly through learning materials, such as textbooks; teacher guides; assessment guides. This makes curriculum transparent to education agents and stakeholders: everybody can see what is intended and required in terms of curriculum provisions and learning results.
However, for the sake of coherence and consistency, learning materials, such as textbooks, should be developed in line with the broader curriculum perspective that is usually defined in a curriculum framework.
PRINCIPLES AND CRITERIA FOR SELECTING THE CURRICULUM CONTENT
The criteria below can be utilized in the selection of subject matter for micro curriculum, and for the content, subjects needed for the curricular program or course, of the macro curriculum.
To help learners attain maximum self-sufficiency at the most economical manner is the main guiding principle for subject matter or content selection (Scheffler, 1970) as cited by Bilbao et al., (2008). Economy of learning refers to less teaching effort and less use of educational resources; but students gain more results. They are able to cope up with the learning outcomes effectively. This means that students should be given chance to experiment, observe, and do field study. This allows them to learn independently. With this principle in mind, I suggest that for a high school curriculum or preparatory year, there should be a one day independent learning activity each week. However, this should be carefully planned by the teacher. When the students return, they should present outputs from the activity.
The subject matter or content is significant if it is selected and organized for the development of learning activities, skills, processes, and attitude. It also develops the three domains of learning namely the cognitive, effective and psychomotor skills, and considers the cultural aspects of the learners. Particularly, if your students come from different cultural backgrounds and races, the subject matter must be culture-sensitive. In short, select a content or subject matter that can achieve the overall aim of the curriculum.
Validity refers to the authenticity of the subject matter or content you selected. Make sure that the topics are not obsolete. For example, do not include typewriting as a skill to be learned by college students. It should be about the computer or Information Technology (IT). Thus, there is a need to check regularly the subject matter or contents of the curriculum, and replace it if necessary. Do not wait for another 5 years in order to change it. Modern curriculum experts are after current trends, relevance and authenticity of the curriculum; otherwise, your school or country will be left behind.
This criterion is true to learner-centered curriculum. Students learn best if the subject matter is meaningful to them. It becomes meaningful if they are interested in it. But if the curriculum is subject centered, teachers have no choice but to finish the pacing schedule religiously and teach only what is in the book. This may somehow explain why many fail in the subject.
Another criterion is the usefulness of the content or subject matter. Students think that a subject matter or some subjects are not important to them. They view it useless. As a result, they don’t study. Here are the questions that students often ask: Will I need the subject in my job? Will it give meaning to my life? Will it develop my potentials? Will it solve my problem? Will it be part of the test? Will I have a passing mark if I learn it? Students only value the subject matter or content if it is useful to them.
The subject matter or content must be within the schema of the learners. It should be within their experiences. Teachers should apply theories on psychology of learning in order to know how subjects are presented, sequenced, and organized to maximize the learning capacity of the students.
It means that the subject matter can be fully implemented. It should consider the real situation of the school, the government, and the society, in general. Students must learn within the allowable time and the use of resources available. Do not give them a topic that is impossible to finish. For example, you have only one week to finish the unit but then, the activities may take a month for the students to complete it. This is not feasible.
Q.2 DESCRIBE THE STEPS INVOLVED IN THE CURRICULUM EVALUATION PROCESS. SUGGEST DIFFERENT MEASURES TO IMPROVE CURRICULUM EVALUATION PROCESS IN PAKISTAN
Steps Involved In the Curriculum Evaluation Process.
1 . Specify the Objectives of the evaluation
PURPOSE: The purpose statement should succinctly indicate the reason why the evaluation is being undertaken.
SCOPE: The scope statement in essence should state what will be focused on in the evaluation.
2. CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE EVALUATION DESIGN / METHOD
PRE-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: These are used when no control groups are available. In such cases a post test only, or pre-and post-tests, will be used to determine the outcomes of a program.
OUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: These are used in cases where control groups are available but where subjects/cases cannot be assigned to groups on the basis of random selection.
3. IDENTIFY THE SOURCES OF INFORMATION / DATA:
- The data / information needed for Evaluation of Curriculum may be collected from one are more of the following potential sources
- Present students
- Ex-students (Alumni)
- Heads of institutions
- Curriculum Coordinators
- Officers of examining bodies
4. CONSTRUCT INSTRUMENTS FOR DATA COLLECTION
Questionnaires containing fixed response, restricted response and or open ended questions.
- Interview schedules
- Observation schedules to be used during on site visits (Checklists and Rating Scales) Attitude
- Achievement Tests
5. SELECT OR DEVELOP STRATEGIES FOR DATA COLLECTION
- Mailing out the questionnaire.
- Administering the questionnaire in person.
- Conducting personal interviews.
- Making on site visits for observation. Observations have to be made In unobtrusive manner to the extent possible.
- Inspecting samples of the products of the students and publications of the institution.
- Following the procedures laid down for the experimental design chosen.
6. CONDUCT PILOT SCALE EVALUATION.
- To provide a trial run of the data collection approach
- To test out the data-collection instrument
- To provide some pilot data to test out the data analysis techniques planned
- To give the evaluation team experience in working with the sample
7. CONDUCT LARGE-SCALE EVALUATION
During this stage the data collection plan drawn up in Step WILL BE IMPLEMENTED
8. ANALYZE THE DATA.
- Quantitative data
- Qualitative data
- Methods of data analysis
- establishing validity & reliability
9. PREPARE REPORTS AND FEEDBACK TO DECISION MAKERS
- Written Report
- Outline of an Evaluation Report
- The evaluation report should be written in a style and language that will be easily understood by the audience.
- The contents, length and nature of the report is partly a matter for negotiation between evaluators
- & clients.
- Oral Report / Presentation to decision makers
Q No:3 DISCUSS THE CONCEPT OF EDUCATION FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT. COMPARE THE FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL APPROACHES TO EDUCATION FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN
The Concept Education for Rural Development The meaning of rural development has been the subject of much debate and little agreement. The definition of rural development varies from one point of view to the other. The definition or rural development may be centered on income criterion in which the concept is made to address the problem of rural poverty. Or it may be defined in sociological concept in which the rural poor represents a reservoir of untapped talent a target group that should be given the opportunity to enjoy the benefits of development through improved education, health and nutrition. This is one of the most important definitions of rural development as the provision of social infrastructures could provide the catalyst that would transform the rural areas.
Rural development may also be seen as an ideology and a practice. It may mean planned change by public agencies based outside the rural areas such as the national Government and International organization; It may also be the bringing of the countryside into an active state, as well as the transformation of the inferior nature of the country side into something more superior in terms of activities. Rural development as the Improvement in the living standard of the rural dwellers by engaging them in productive activities such as the establishment of rural industries that will increase their income. It is seen by these scholars as a means of raising the sustainable living of the rural poor by giving them the opportunity to develop their full potentials.
Rural development can be distinguished from agricultural development which it entails and transcends. In essence Rural Development may imply a broad based re-organization and mobilization of rural masses in order to enhance their capacity to cope effectively with the daily task of their lives and with changes consequent upon this. According to the World Bank Rural Development must be clearly designed to increase production. It recognizes that improved food supplies and nutrition, together with basic services, such as health and education, not only directly improve the physical well-being and quality of life of the rural poor, but can also indirectly enhance their productivity and their ability to contribute to the national economy.
Rural Development ensures the modernization of the rural society and the transition from its traditional isolation to integration with the national economy. It is concerned with increased agricultural production for urban and international markets. This is essential so as to generate foreign exchange, and to attract revenue to finance public and private consumption and investment.
In order to encourage increased production rural development may offer a package of inputs and welfare services for the rural masses. Such inputs and welfare services include physical inputs (such as the provision of feeder roads, water and electrification), social inputs—(namely health and educational facilities) and institutional inputs such as credit facilities, agricultural research facilities, rural expansion services among others.
Formal Approaches to Education for Rural Development In Pakistan.
Mindless urbanization of rural areas may not be conceived as rural Development. Neither the creation of consumerism can be judged as rural development, nor can the provision of goods and services enjoyed by urban folk to the rural masses serve the desired purpose. Moreover centralized macro-perspectives will also not generate the desired results, since every village/region is a different entity and it is impossible to implement centrally planned and even well-conceived programmes uniformly in all the areas while ignoring their micro level variations. The bureaucratic and impersonal process of implementation of rural program should therefore be discarded. Any development programme aiming at the transformation of rural societies should take into account the socioeconomic aspects and the behavioral pattern of rural society. Any change aimed at improving efficiency and income of rural people should not attempt to sever their relationship from their social and cultural heritage.